Hyperactivity n Autism
----- Original Message -----
From: "Nina karina Haris"
Sent: Monday, January 24, 2005 1:00 PM
Subject: [Puterakembara] Hyperactivity n Autism
Hi Bapak Augustua,
I'm neither a doctor nor child specialist but I thought I'd like to share this with you and our friends and I really hope this can help. From Encyclopedia I found that 'Hyperactivity' means a state of excessive muscular activity. This term is also used to describe a situation when a particular portion of the body is excessively active, such as when a gland produces too much of its particular hormone. Hyperactive behavior commonly refers to a group of characteristics. This can include constant activity, easy distractibility, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, aggressiveness, and similar behaviors. Typical behaviors may include fidgeting or constant moving, wandering, excessive talking, and difficulty participating in "quiet" activities (such as reading).
Hyperkinetic behavior (a very active child) often decreases as the child grows older, and disappears by adolescence.
- attention deficit disorder
- emotional disorders
- brain or central nervous system disorders. The central nervous system refers to the core nervous system, which consists of the brain, spinal cord, and spinal nerves.
- normal personality
Hyperactivity is not like a light switch, which can be "off" or "on." Hyperactivity can be very mild, with overactive behaviors observable only in special circumstances, or possibly with academic performance lower than expected. But with severe hyperactivity, the child may have serious difficulty with concentration and attention so that a special education classroom is required for learning.
One other complicating factor is intelligence. Hyperactive children with above average or gifted intelligence are able to control the hyperactive behaviors much better than the hyperactive children with learning disabilities or below average intelligence. Gifted hyperactive children usually can control their behavior for periods of time, so they seem lose control intermittently. When they are interested in what they are doing, gifted hyperactive children seem quiet. Hyperactive children with learning disabilities have more difficulty maintaining control, and often have consistent hyperactive behaviors.
Hyperactive children do not always act over-active, and this is often a confusing point with parents. ("Over-activity" is an observation, not a diagnosis.) Parents may deny that there is a problem with hyperactivity (or over-activity), because they observe that their child can sit and watch television. Most hyperactive children can watch television quietly, because television is very active. Only the most severe hyperactive kids have difficulty watching television.
"Attention Deficit Disorder" is the name given to the group of illnesses that have poor attention as the primary problem. ADHD stands for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children with ADHD may have hyperactive behavior, a lack of attention and difficulty concentrating. Most children with ADHD have signs of both hyperactivity and attention problems. Some children, though, may have only signs of inattention. This kind of problem used to be called attention-deficit disorder (ADD). ADD is now thought of as a form of ADHD.
The attention deficit disorders are currently divided into two sub-types. One is "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder," which is commonly called "hyperactivity." The other type is called "Undifferentiated Attention Deficit Disorder," which suggests that there could be several disorders, but there is no clear way to differentiate or sort them. An example of undifferentiated attention deficit disorder is a child with a poor attention span, but who is not hyperactive in the behavior. Children with this group of problems need much attention and study. Some may be found to have learning disabilities, and others may be depressed.
Many parents are understood confused about the links between the hyperactivity (AD/HD) and autism. There are many reasons for the two conditions being confused in young children. Many children with autism display signs of hyperactivity and inattention when they're toddler. However, experts are very clear that as the child becomes older the apparent similarities between the two conditions will separate out. The child with autism may become more withdrawn and given the right environment their hyperactivity should wane and their difficulties with social skills will emerge. Children with hyperactivity (AD/HD) on the other hand are unlikely to become calmer with age unless they receive medication or high quality therapeutic interventions. They still develop social and communication skills and are unlikely to have the anxiety levels of a child with autism.
Some people have suggested that AD/HD belongs on the autistic spectrum as children with the condition have so much in common with those with autism. However, many children with AD/HD have no difficulties with communication and social skills except where these are the result of their limited functioning in other areas. That is, children with AD/HD may appear to have difficulty interacting with other children at school but this has more to do with their low self-esteem and their difficulty settling to playing or working together in a constructive way rather than an inherent problem with relating to others.
There are three illnesses that start out "looking like" hyperactivity but are actually significantly different. One is Bipolar Disorder, called Manic-Depression in the past. Children with Bipolar Disorder have frequent, unpredictable mood swings, and are their behavior is often "hypomanic" meaning "less than manic." Manic people are very energetic, don't sleep, have grandiose ideas, and feel inappropriately happy or high or become easily irritable. Children with hypomania may look hyperactive in the classroom during their childhood. As they become adolescents, the mood swings become more definite. Bipolar Disorder is currently a "controversial" illness in child psychiatry, because it can be so easily misdiagnosed. The treatment of Bipolar Disorder requires very strong medications as Lithium or Tegretol. Both Lithium and Tegretol have many side effects, and are very toxic when overdosed by even small amounts. Sometimes children who are diagnosed as having hyperactivity when young turn
out to have manic or bipolar disorder diagnosed in adolescence. Stimulant medication can worsen manic or hypomanic symptoms, and rarely, antidepressant medication can cause mood swings to cycle more rapidly.
The second hyperactivity "look-alike" disorder is over-anxious disorder. Hyperactive children typically do not worry much. The only thing that they consistently tell me that they worry about is that they get into trouble. Over-anxious children intensely worry about many things. You may have had a child or two in the classroom who says they are worried about getting AIDS and they won't touch anything. The next week they worry about nuclear war and then the next week they find something else they're worried about. These children are very clingy, and they ask for much attention and reassurance. Stimulant medication usually makes anxiety worse, but antidepressants often reduce anxiety.
The last illness is Tourette's Disorder. This starts looking like either over-anxious disorder or hyperactivity or both. Before the age of 12, they begin developing problems with tics. Then can develop vocal ticks. Sometimes they even have a vocal tic of saying cuss words, called Coprolalia.
In addition to the above disorders, psychosis and certain learning disabilities also can be confused for hyperactivity in children. Psychotic disorders can include symptoms of thought disorder, hallucinations, or delusions (in which imaginary beliefs are considered true.) The thought disorganization can be reflected in inappropriate behaviors and illogical language. Stimulant medication can worsen symptoms of psychosis. Specific learning disabilities usually result in poor attention for the specific subjects affected. For example, a child with dyslexia often has poor attention during reading activities.
Children with language disorders often prefer to think in pictures and usually do not "talk to themselves" to process problems with sequential logic. They often respond to situations impulsively, without taking time to think. If they do not follow what is being said to them, they appear to have wandering attention. Because of the language problems, they have little awareness that they are not processing verbal information correctly. They simply are not aware that they do not understand the complex verbal interactions affecting them. This can give the appearance of distractibility and impulsive behavior. Medications do not seem to improve language disorders, but many children with learning disabilities have coexisting attention deficit disorder that can be helped with medication.
For more info in related issue, please read an article at:
For more info about Autism :
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